CBSE Class 8 History Chapter 1: Modern Period Notes

Class 8 Modern Period notes. In this chapter, you will learn about the basic definition of History, Periods in History, about Modern Period, Importance of Time in history, Interpretations in history and Historical sources.

In short, you will learn about what is History, How history is recorded over time and what makes the history and Modern Period. We will also concentrate on four questions in history :
1) What happened?
2) When did it happen?
3) Where did it happen?
4) How did it happen?

Our Notes of chapter Modern Period will cover :
1) Full Summary of this Chapter
2) Important questions of this Chapter
3) Important Terms and Glossary of Chapter Modern Period
4) True/false


Simply, We can say that History is the study of change. By studying History, you will know how things were in the past and how they evolved over the years.

Over the time, History has evolved. In the past, History revolved around the life of powerful people, but now History has become the study of Common people and their lives and about new ideas.

Dates in History are linked to events. For some events like Battles, specific dates can be assigned. But for some processes, there can be no fixed dates. In that situation, we can only assign centuries to them.

Periods in History

Now, the question comes to your Mind!

Why History is divided into Periods?

Periods in History make the study of History easier. Generally, the society, economy, culture and politics of one period are different from another period. Through Periods, we can easily compare the society, economy and politics of one Period with Other Periods. Ultimately, The period in which we saw higher growth of society and economy. Then that period can be regarded as the modern period. So, Historians have divided history into three periods: Ancient, Medieval and Modern Period.

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Periodization in History can be done based on something which has had a profound impact on the way we live today.

Let's understand it deeply!

Periodization is done in History because by Periodization, we can easily understand Our Past. Periods in History reflect a change in Political level and also as well as change in the societies and economies.

Now, Historians assigned the 18th century as the starting point of the Modern period.

Let us know on what basis, they assigned the 18th century as the starting point of the Modern period?

In the 18th century, industrialization, colonization, scientific progress, urbanization had occurred. These trends were first visible in Europe.
Due to these changes, the life of the people underwent a sudden change.

Was the Modern Period really "Modern"?

The Modern period is modern for countries like Britain, France, Germany, etc. Because in this period, their societies had evolved and the Economy grew up.

Can India be called Modern in the true sense during the time of the British?

Not in the true sense.
Because the British treated India as a colony. They took away raw materials from India and made her an importer of finished British goods. But British rule can hardly be described as "Modern" because during British rule in India, railway lines developed, Western Education was introduced, industrialization also begins. But Overall, Indian historians named the British rule as colonial Period. A shift from the Medieval period to the Modern period is also known as the period of transition.

Time In History

Time is more important in history rather than a precise date.

Let's understand it!
It is simple to define dates for events in Political history. For example, we know the sequence of events, year-wise, of the revolt of 1857. But for social, economic, cultural history, specific dates cannot be assigned. We can only understand the Society, culture and economy of a particular Period not from a specific date. People experience a change in different ways over different periods. So Specific period explains better the life of people, economy, the culture of that particular period rather than a specific date.

Now, Can we assign a date When the feeling of nationalism spread in India?
Not, This is a bigger process.
For Processes, we assign centuries to understand them.

Interpretations in History

Now, first understand, what are interpretations in History?

Interpretations are opinions of different individuals (Historians) and groups on the same event in History.

Interpretations differ in history as individuals and groups (Historians) interpret events differently.
For Example,
British historians termed the Revolt of 1857 as a "Sepoy Mutiny". However, Indian historians treat it differently. Contemporary records also support them. They tell us that the common people played a vital role in the event and the real reason for this uprising was the exploitative nature of British rule. So, They termed it as the "first war of independence". Here, British historians and Indian historians interpret differently for the same event. So, there are generally differing opinions and Interpretations in History for the same event.
Now, it is for us to get to the bottom and dig out the truth. For this, we should not depend upon only one source but we should also look at other sources.

Sources of Modern Period

Archaeology sources are comparatively less important for the modern period. Through Sources, we can understand the life of people politics economic culture of any Particular Period.

Literary Sources

The literary sources for the particular period are many and varied. There are original documents like official records of the British government, government reports, administrative records, surveys and so on. All the records have been carefully preserved in archives and Museums.

Official Records

The Mughals introduced the culture of recording everything. This was further perfected by the British. Every administrative decision was reported and carefully preserved. Thus, the preceding of each government department is available to us.

Surveys Reports

The British also conducted so many surveys. Population survey, revenue survey, land survey and many other types of Surveys were also conducted. Mapping was also introduced. The British also made a large number of topographic maps. Census operations were also introduced. All these reports are available to us.

Indigenous Records

Newspapers, books, novels and leaflets reflect the feeling of people under British rule. People wrote in Varnaculers and in English. Dadabhai Naoroji wrote "Poverty and Unbritish rule in India" in which he highlighted the exploitative nature of British rule.

Newspapers such as Kesari (in Marathi) and Mahratta (in English) also made people aware of the real intentions of the British. This year, we will study the history of the last 250-300 years.

What are the main features of the modern period or Modern Age?

1) Industrialization: This refers to the large-scale production in a huge number of industries.

2) Urbanisation: This refers to the movement of people from villages to cities in search of better living standards.

3) The spread of nationalism: This refers to the feeling of intense love for one's own country.
4) The spread of democracy: Democracy is a system of government where the people elect their representatives. These representatives further govern the country after being elected.

5) An increased emphasis on Science and technology: There was an increasing interest in rational thinking and scientific discovery as opposed to accepting old beliefs unquestionably.

Important Questions of Chapter Modern Period in Indian History class 8 notes

Short Questions/Answers

1) Which century is regarded as the beginning of the Modern period?
Answer: 18th century.

2) Who introduced the Culture of recording everything?
Answer: Mughals.

3) Which Historians termed the 'revolt of 1857' as a "Sepoy Mutiny"?
Answer: British Historians.

4) Name the two newspapers which made people aware of the real intentions of the British?
Answer: Kesari (in Marathi) and Mahratta (in English).

5) Who began the Census operations in India?
Answer: British government.

6) Where industrialization was first visible?
Answer: Europe especially in England.

7) When did the modern period begin in India class 8?
Answer: The Modern period begins in India in the mid-eighteenth century.

Long Questions/Answers

1) List the defining features of the Modern era. Why do Indian historians not want to call the British rule in India a 'Modern' period?
Answer: Defining features of the modern era are industrialization, colonization and urbanization. Indian historians did not want to call the British rule in India a "Modern period" because the British treated India as a colony. They took away raw materials from India and made her an importer of finished British goods. Indians were suffering a lot under British rule.

2) What is the Modern period in India associated with?
Answer: The Modern period in India was associated with industrialization, urbanization and the introduction of Western education.

3) Why do interpretations differ in history. Give an example to support your answer?
Answer: Interpretations differ in history because History is interpreted differently by different people. For example, there are two historians. They are working on the same historical event (issue). They are researching differently on that historical event. Now, their opinions regarding that historical event will be different because of their researches. Thus, interpretations differ in History.

4) Why did the British conduct so many surveys in India?
Answer: British conducted so many surveys in India to understand better our country. The Land survey helped the British to understand our Land resources. All these services helped the British administration to control our country. Topographic maps were also made by the British for war strategies.

5) Why Dates are important in History? Give an example to support your answer in class 8.
Answer: Dates in History are linked to events.Through dates, one can examine relationships between two events. Through dates, we can easily sequence the events chronologically. Dates are also important to make periods in History.

Important Terms and Glossary of chapter Modern Period in Indian history class 8

1) Colonization: To exploit an area after capturing it by force.

2) Nationalism: A strong feeling of love and pride in one's own country.

3) Sepoys: Indian soldiers serving in the British Army.

4) Mutiny: Rebellion by the Sepoys.

5) Archives: A place where Historical documents are stored.

6) Topographic Maps: A map that shows the physical features of a place.

7)Census: Official counting of Population of a Country.

State Whether True/False of class 8 history chapter 1 

1) Interpretations differ in History :______.
Answer: True

2) Dates in History are not linked to Events:______.
Answer: False

3) Official Records are archaeological Sources:______.
Answer: False

4) British introduced the Culture of recording everything:______.
Answer: False

5) A precise Date is less important than the period:______.
Answer: True

6) Nowadays, History has become the study of Powerful People:______.
Answer: False

7) The Modern period in India began with the British conquest of India.
Answer: True.

Class 8 History Chapter 1 Modern Period Notes Conclusion

Hope so you enjoyed reading Our Notes of Class 8 Chapter 1: The Modern Period. Our Notes provide a Full Summary of the Chapter with Explanations, Important Questions, Important Terms, Glossary and True/False. In Some books, this chapter is named How, when and Where. But all topics, concepts, a summary of the chapter modern period are the same as the chapter how, when and where.
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