Physical Features of India Class 9 Notes Geography Chapter 2

Physical Features of India Class 9 Notes Geography Chapter 2 .Here, you will get Physical features of India class 9 notes with full explanation of this chapter. Moreover, we also cover Important Questions and Answers of Physical features of India.

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Our Notes of Physical features of India Class 9 consists of :
1) Physical features of India Class 9 explanation
2) One Mark Questions of Physical features of India
3) Important Questions of Physical features of India
4) Physical features of India Class 9 Important points

Physical features of India class 9 Notes Geography Chapter 2

In the first chapter,We understood that  India is vast Country with varied Landforms.India is Large Landmass.This landmass is formed during different Geological Periods which ultimately influenced her Relief.In Physical features of India Chapter, we will understand what are physical features of India and why are they so important ?

Many Scientists have attempted to explain the formation of Physical features with the help of Theories such as "Theory of Plate Tectonics".The formation of the Physical features of India can be explained on the basis of Theory of Plate Tectonics.

Now, What is Theory of Plate Tectonics?

The Theory of Plate Tectonics suggests that the crust ( upper part) of the earth has been formed of Seven Major and Some minor Plates.The movement of the Plates led to building up of Stresses within the plates, ultimately leading to Folding, Faulting and volcanic Activity.

These Plate Movements are classified into three types - Convergent Boundary, Divergent Boundary and Transform Boundary.

Convergent Boundary : When some plates come towards each other, they form Convergent Boundary.

Transform Boundary : When Some plates move horizontally past each other, they form Transform Boundary.

Divergent Boundary : When some plates move away each other, they form Divergent Boundary.

Due to the movements of Plates, the position and size of continents have changed over millions of years.


Australia is the neighbouring country of India in the Gondwana Land.

Formation of Himalayas (Physical features of India in Northern India)

1) The Peninsula Part was a part of the Gondwana Land. The Gondwana Land included South Africa, South America, Australia and India.

2) The conventional currents split the crust into a number of pieces resulted in the leading to the drifting of the Indo-Australian Plate towards North.Splitting of crust into the number of pieces also separated Indo-Australian Plate from Gondwana Land.

3) Drifting of Indo-Australian Plate towards north resulted in the collision of this plate with Eurasian plate.

4) Due to this collision, the sedimentary rocks which were accumulated in the Tethys were folded, ultimately leading to formation of Himalayas.

Formation of Northern Plains (Physical features of India in Northern India)

1) After the formation of Himalayas, The Himalayas uplift out of the Tethys Sea, ultimately leading to subsidence of the Northern part of Peninsular Plateau.

2) This Subsidence of the Northern part of Peninsular Plateau becomes a large basin.

3) In Due course of time,this large Basin got filled with deposition of sediments by the rivers flowing from the mountains in the North and the Peninsular Plateau.

4) A Large flat land with extensive alluvial soil deposits led to formation of the Northern Plains of India.

The Physical features of India can be grouped under the following divisions:

1) The Himalayan Mountains (Physical feature of India in the North)

2) The Northern Plains (Physical feature of India in the North)

3) The Peninsular Plateau (Physical feature of India in the South)

4) The Indian Desert (Physical feature of India in the North-West)

5) The Coastal Plains (Physical features of India on the Coastline)

6) The Islands (Physical features of India in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal)

The Himalayan Mountains


1) The Himalayas are  structurally fold Mountains and forms an unstable Zone.

2) The Himalayan Mountains also form an Arc,which have distance of about 2,400 Km.

3) Their Width decreases as we move from West to East.Example : Width in Kashmir = 400 Km and Width in Arunachal Pradesh = 150 Km.

4) The altitudes ( Height) of Mountains are greater in the Eastern half than those in Western half.

5) It consists three Parallel ranges in its Longitudinal extent. The three Parallel ranges are : Himadri, Himachal and Shivalik.

6) This Physical feature of India also protects our country from Warm winds from Tibet. 

Features of Himadri or Inner Himalayas : 

1) It has loftiest peaks with an average mean height of six thousand metres.

2) The folds of these Mountains are asymmetrical in nature.

3) The Core of Himadri is composed of granite and it is Perennially snow bound.

Features of Himachal or Lesser Himalayas

1) The Average Width is of 50 Km and altitude varies between 3700 and 4500 metres.

2) The Pir Panjal Range is the longest and the most important range.

3) The Dhaula Dhar and the Mahabharat ranges are also prominent ones.

4) The Himachal Range consists of the famous valley of Kashmir, the Kangra and Kullu Valley.

5) This Range is also famous for its hill stations.

Features of Shiwaliks 

1) Width of 10-50 Km and altitudes between 900 and 1100 metres.

2) These ranges consists of unconsolidated sediments.

3) The valleys in this range are covered with thick gravel and alluvium.

4) The Longitudinal natural depression lying between lesser Himalaya and Shiwaliks are known as Duns. Example: Dehradun, Kotlidun and Patlidun.

Important Point to Remember : Himalayas also have been divided on the basis of regions from West to East. The following divisions:

1) Punjab Himalaya

2) Kumaun Himalaya

3) Nepal Himalaya

4) Assam Himalaya

Important Point to Remember: The Brahmaputra river is located on the eastern most boundary of the Himalayas.

Features of Purvanchal (Physical features of India in Eastern India)

1) Beyond the Dihang Gorge, the Himalayas bend to the south and extends towards eastern boundary of the India.They are known as Purvanchal or Eastern Hills.

2) These are mostly composed of strong sandstones which are Sedimentary Rocks.

3) These mostly run as Parallel ranges due to Dense forest in the Eastern Part of India 

Examples: Patkai Hills, Naga Hills, Manipur Hills and Mizo Hills.

Features of Northern Plains

1) These Plains has been formed by the three Major river System- Indus,Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers along with their tributaries.

2) Consists of Alluvial soil.

3) The Plain is about 2400 Km long and 240 to 320 wide.It Spreads over an area of 7 lakh

4) The largest part of the Northern Plains is formed of older alluvium.

5) This Physical feature of India consists of Metropolitan Cities and is also known as Granaries of India.

The rivers in their lower Course split into number of channels due to the deposition of silt.These are generally called Distributaries.

Northern Plains is divided into three sections:

Punjab Plains: The Western Part of the Northern Plains. Formed by the Indus and it's tributaries. Major part of this plain lies in the Pakistan.

Important Point to Remember: Doab is made up of two words- "do" meaning two and "ab" meaning water. Similarly, Punjab means Punj(five) and ab(water).

Ganga Plains: The Ganga plain spreads between Ghagger and Teesta Rivers.

Brahmaputra Plains: This Plain particularly lies in Assam.

The Northern Plains can be divided into four regions:

Bhabar: The zone of soil which spreads along the Shiwaliks foothills.The soil in this region contains lots of pebbles.

Terai: A wet,swampy and Marshy region.This was a thickly forested region with full of wildlife.

Important Point to Remember: Dudhwa National Park is located in the Terai Region.

Bhanger:It is a old alluvium and contains kanker nodules with Calcium carbonates.

Khadar: The newer alluvium which do not contain kanker nodules.This region is mostly fertile,thus ideal for intensive Agriculture.

Features of Peninsular Plateau

1) It is the Tableland composed of the old crystalline, igneous and Metamorphic rocks.

2) Formed Due to the breaking and drifting of the Gondwanaland.

3) Consists of broad and shallow valleys and rounded Hills.

4) It Consists of the two broad divisions- the Central Highlands and the Deccan Plateau.

5) The Peninsular Plateau contains mostly Black Soil.

6) The rocks found in the Peninsular Plateau are Igneous Rocks due to Volcanic Origin.

7) The Aravali Hills highly Eroded Hills and are known as Broken Hills.

8) This Physical feature of India consists of Industrial Areas because of various minerals found in this region.

Features of Central Highlands

1) The Vindhyan Range is bounded by the Central Highlands on the South and Aravalis on the northwest.

2) The Central Highlands are narrower in the East but wider in the West.

3) The Chota Nagpur Plateau marks the eastward extension , drained by the Damodar River.

Features of Deccan Plateau

1) It is the Triangular landmass that lies South to the Narmada River.

2) The Satpura Range lies in the North while the Mahadev, the Kaimur Hills and the Maikal range lies in East to the Deccan Plateau.

3) The Deccan Plateau is higher in the West.

4) The Deccan Plateau is separated by the fault from the Chota Nagpur Plateau.

5) The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats Mark the western and eastern boundary of the Deccan Plateau respectively.

Features of Western Ghats

1) The Western Ghats lies parallel to the Western coast and can be crossed through Passes only.

2) They are Continuous.

3) Average Elevation= 900-1600 metres.

4) The Western Ghats cause orographic rain.

5) The Height of the Western Ghats increases from the North to South.

6) The highest peak in the Western Ghat - Anai Mudi (2637 metres).

Features of Eastern Ghats

1) These are discontinuous, irregular and dissected by the rivers draining into the Bay of Bengal.

Related Notes:

Chapter India Size and Location Notes 

2) The Highest peak in the Eastern Ghat- Mahendragiri ( 1501 metres ).

Features of Indian Desert

1) The Indian Desert lies towards the Western  margins of the Aravali Hills.

2) It has extreme climate with low vegetation cover.

3) Streams disappear into the sand as they do not have enough water to reach the Sea.

4) Luni River, the only large river in this region.

5) Barchans ( Cresent shaped dunes ) cover larger Areas in the Indian Desert.

6) This Physical feature of India is a tourist site, because of its beautiful environment.

Features of Coastal Plains

1) The Western coast, between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea is a Narrow Plain. It consists of three sections.

2) Northern part of coast = Konkan,Central part = Kannad, Southern part of this coast = Malabar 

3) The Plains along the Bay of Bengal : 

Northern part = Northern Circar

Southern part = Coromandal Coast

4) The Lake Chilika is the largest salt water lake in India and an important feature along the eastern Coast.

Features of the Lakshadweep Islands

1) The Lakshadweep Islands are group of islands and composed of small coral islands.

2) Earlier, Lakshadweep Islands were known as Laccadive,Minicoy and Amindive. In 1973, these were named as Lakshadweep islands.

3) Lakshadweep Islands- small Area of 32 Sq Km. 

4) The Pitli Island is uninhabited and has a bird Sanctuary.

Features of Andaman and Nicobar Islands

1) They are bigger in size and are scattered.

2) It is considered that these islands are an elevated portion of submarine mountains.

3) They are close to Equator,thus, experiences equatorial climate.

4) These Islands has thick forest cover.

Fact to Remember: India's only active volcano is found in Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Physical features of india class 9 geography important questions

physical features of india class 9 geography one mark questions with one word answers

1) Gondwanaland is the southern part of which Continent ?
Answer: Super Continent Pangea.

2) What is the width of Himalayas in the Jammu and Kashmir ?
Answer: 400 Km.

3) Name the Northern most Range of Himalayas ?
Answer: Himadri.

4) What is the shape of folds of Great Himalayas ?
Answer: Asymmetrical in Nature.

5) Name the Longest range in lesser Himalaya.
Answer: Pir Panjal Range.

6) Which Range is famous for its hill stations ?
Answer: Himachal or Lesser Himalaya.

7) What is Purvanchal ?
Answer: These hills are composed of strong sandstones and running through Northern-Eastern states.

8) What is the Area of Northern Plains ?
Answer: 7 lakh sq. Km.

9) What do you mean by Doab ?
Answer: Doab means "Two" water.

10) In Which river, largest inhabited riverine island is located ?
Answer: Inhabited riverine island=Majuli, River Brahmaputra.

11) Name the Physical feature of India which provides sites for fishing.
Answer: The Coastal Plains.

12) In which region, Soil contains kanker nodules ?
Answer: Bhanger.

13) Which Physical feature of India provides a fertile land for intensive Agriculture ?
Answer: The Northern Plains.

14) Name the range which is located north to the Deccan Plateau ?
Answer: Satpura Range.

15) Name the highest peak in the Western Ghats.
Answer: Anai Mudi (2,695 metres).

16) Which type of rocks does Deccan plateau consists of ?
Answer: Igneous Rocks.

17) Name the two features of Aravali Range.
Answer: 1) Highly Eroded Hills.
2) They are found as Broken hills.

18) What are the earlier names of Lakshadweep Islands ?
Answer: Minicoy,Amindive and Laccadive.

19) Name any three Physical features of India.
Answer: The Himalayas, Northern Plains and Plateau.

20) Which Physical feature of India played a crucial role in Industrialization ?
Answer: The Plateau.

Class 9 Geography Chapter 2 questions and answers

1) "The land of India displays great physical variations".Justify the Statement. 
"The Physical features of India are of immense value".Justify the Statement.
Answer: i) The Himalayas or Northern Mountains are the major sources of water and forest wealth.

ii) The Northern Plains provide the base for early civilization and have fertile land for intensive Agriculture.

iii) The Plateau consists of various minerals,thus, played a crucial role in Industrialization.

iv) The Coastal Plains provide sites for fishing and port activities.

2) Describe the Formation of the Northern Plains ?
Answer: i) The Himalayas uplift out of the Tethys Sea and the subsidence of the Northern part resulted in the formation of large Basin.

ii) In Hundreds of Years, This Northern part gradually got filled with deposition of sediments by the rivers flowing from northern mountains and Peninsular Plateau.

iii) A flat land with extensive alluvial deposits led to the formation of Northern Plains of India.

3) Mention any four features of Peninsular Plateau.
Answer: i) It is the Tableland composed of Igneous and Metamorphic rocks.

ii) It was formed due to the breaking and drifting of the Gondwana Land.

iii) It has broad,shallow and rounded Hills.

iv) The Plateau is of Volcanic Origin.

v) The Plateau consists of two divisions- Central Highlands and Deccan Plateau.

4) What are the features of Western Ghats ?
Answer: i) They are located on the west coast of India.

ii) They are less wide and are unbroken.

iii) The Highest peak is Anai Mudi.

iv) They are the source of the rivers like Krishna, Godavari and Kaveri.

v) They are Continuous and can be crossed only through Passes.

5) Explain the formation of Himalayas.
Answer: i) India was a part of the Gondwanaland,crores of ago.The convection currents of the mantle fractured the Gondwanaland into a number of pieces.

ii) The Indo-Australian Plate gets separated from the Gondwanaland and afterwards slowly drifted towards the North.

iii) The Indo-Australian Plate got combined with much larger Eurasian plate.

iv) Under the impact of collision, the sedimentary rocks of the Tethys Sea were folded to form the Himalayas.

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Physical features of India class 9 notes Conclusion

Notes on physical features of India class 9 done.In this Chapter, you have learnt that what are Physical features of India and How Physical features of India makes the Country richer in its Natural Resources.Our Notes covered full summary of chapter Physical features of India.

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