Physical Features of India Class 9 Notes Geography Chapter 2. Students generally face difficulty in understanding this chapter. We will make easier for you.
In this Chapter, you will learn about various physical features of India and their significance. Moreover, you will learn about how these physical features are important for India politically and economically.
Physical features of India Class 9 Notes Geography Chapter 2
In the first chapter, We understood that India is vast Country with varied Landforms. India is Large Landmass. This landmass is formed during different Geological Periods which ultimately influenced her Relief. In this Chapter, we will understand what are physical features of India and why are they so important ?
Many Scientists have attempted to explain the formation of Physical features with the help of Theories such as “Theory of Plate Tectonics”.The formation of the Physical features of India can be explained on the basis of Theory of Plate Tectonics.
Now, What is Theory of Plate Tectonics?
The Theory of Plate Tectonics suggests that the crust ( upper part) of the earth has been formed of Seven Major and Some minor Plates. The movement of the Plates led to building up of Stresses within the plates, ultimately leading to Folding, Faulting and volcanic Activity.
These Plate Movements are classified into three types – Convergent Boundary, Divergent Boundary and Transform Boundary.
Convergent Boundary : When some plates come towards each other, they form Convergent Boundary.
Transform Boundary : When Some plates move horizontally past each other, they form Transform Boundary.
Divergent Boundary : When some plates move away each other, they form Divergent Boundary.
Due to the movements of Plates, the position and size of continents have changed over millions of years.
1) The Peninsula Part was a part of the Gondwana Land. The Gondwana Land included South Africa, South America, Australia and India.
2) The conventional currents split the crust into a number of pieces resulted in the leading to the drifting of the Indo-Australian Plate towards North.Splitting of crust into the number of pieces also separated Indo-Australian Plate from Gondwana Land.
3) Drifting of Indo-Australian Plate towards north resulted in the collision of this plate with Eurasian plate.
4) Due to this collision, the sedimentary rocks which were accumulated in the Tethys were folded, ultimately leading to formation of Himalayas.
Formation of Northern Plains
1) After the formation of Himalayas, The Himalayas uplift out of the Tethys Sea, ultimately leading to subsidence of the Northern part of Peninsular Plateau.
2) This Subsidence of the Northern part of Peninsular Plateau becomes a large basin.
3) In Due course of time,this large Basin got filled with deposition of sediments by the rivers flowing from the mountains in the North and the Peninsular Plateau.
4) A Large flat land with extensive alluvial soil deposits led to formation of the Northern Plains of India.
The Physical features of India can be grouped under the following divisions:
1) The Himalayan Mountains (Physical feature of India in the North)
2) The Northern Plains (Physical feature of India in the North)
3) The Peninsular Plateau (Physical feature of India in the South)
4) The Indian Desert (Physical feature of India in the North-West)
5) The Coastal Plains (Physical features of India on the Coastline)
6) The Islands (Physical features of India in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal)
1) The Himalayas are structurally fold Mountains and forms an unstable Zone.
2) The Himalayan Mountains also form an Arc,which have distance of about 2,400 Km.
3) Their Width decreases as we move from West to East.Example : Width in Kashmir = 400 Km and Width in Arunachal Pradesh = 150 Km.
4) The altitudes ( Height) of Mountains are greater in the Eastern half than those in Western half.
5) It consists three Parallel ranges in its Longitudinal extent. The three Parallel ranges are : Himadri, Himachal and Shivalik.
6) This Physical feature of India also protects our country from Warm winds from Tibet.
Important Point to Remember: Himalayas also have been divided on the basis of regions from West to East. The following divisions:
1) Punjab Himalaya
2) Kumaun Himalaya
3) Nepal Himalaya
4) Assam Himalaya
1) Beyond the Dihang Gorge, the Himalayas bend to the south and extends towards eastern boundary of the India. They are known as Purvanchal or Eastern Hills.
2) These are mostly composed of strong sandstones which are Sedimentary Rocks.
3) These mostly run as Parallel ranges due to Dense forest in the Eastern Part of India
Examples: Patkai Hills, Naga Hills, Manipur Hills and Mizo Hills.
Features of Northern Plains
1) This physical feature of India has been formed by the three Major river System- Indus,Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers along with their tributaries.
2) Consists of Alluvial soil.
3) The Plain is about 2400 Km long and 240 to 320 wide.It Spreads over an area of 7 lakh sq.km.
4) The largest part of the Northern Plains is formed of older alluvium.
Northern Plains is divided into three sections:
1) Punjab Plains: The Western Part of the Northern Plains. Formed by the Indus and it’s tributaries. Major part of this plain lies in the Pakistan.
2) Ganga Plains: The Ganga plain spreads between Ghagger and Teesta Rivers.
3) Brahmaputra Plains: This Plain particularly lies in Assam.
The Northern Plains can be divided into four regions:
1) Bhabar: The zone of soil which spreads along the Shiwaliks foothills.The soil in this region contains lots of pebbles.
2) Terai: A wet,swampy and Marshy region.This was a thickly forested region with full of wildlife.
3) Bhanger:It is a old alluvium and contains kanker nodules with Calcium carbonates.
4) Khadar: The newer alluvium which do not contain kanker nodules.This region is mostly fertile,thus ideal for intensive Agriculture.
Features of Peninsular Plateau
1) It is the Tableland composed of the old crystalline, igneous and Metamorphic rocks.
2) Formed Due to the breaking and drifting of the Gondwanaland.
3) Consists of broad and shallow valleys and rounded Hills.
4) It Consists of the two broad divisions- the Central Highlands and the Deccan Plateau.
5) The Peninsular Plateau contains mostly Black Soil.
6) The rocks found in the Peninsular Plateau are Igneous Rocks due to volcanic origin.
7) The Aravali Hills highly Eroded Hills and are known as Broken Hills.
Features of Deccan Plateau
1) It is the Triangular landmass that lies South to the Narmada River.
2) The Satpura Range lies in the North while the Mahadev, the Kaimur Hills and the Maikal range lies in East to the Deccan Plateau.
3) The Deccan Plateau is higher in the West.
4) The Deccan Plateau is separated by the fault from the Chota Nagpur Plateau.
5) The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats Mark the western and eastern boundary of the Deccan Plateau respectively.
Features of Indian Desert
1) The physical feature of India lies towards the Western margins of the Aravali Hills.
2) It has extreme climate with low vegetation cover.
3) Streams disappear into the sand as they do not have enough water to reach the Sea.
4) Luni River, the only large river in this region.
5) Barchans ( Cresent shaped dunes ) cover larger Areas in the Indian Desert.