Class 8 History Chapter 9: The Making of National Movement Notes. This chapter deals with the freedom struggle of India and the National Movements. Our Notes of this Chapter covers the full explanation of the Chapter with Important Questions.
The Making of National Movement Class 8 History Chapter 9 Notes consists of:
1) Full Explanation
2) Important Points
3) Very Short Question Answers
Early Movement’s after the return of Mahatma Gandhi to India:
1) Mahatma Gandhiji was born on 2 October 1869 at Porbandar (Gujrat), India.
2) Mahatma Gandhiji went to England to Study Law. Gandhiji departed to South Africa to Practice Law.
3) Gandhiji returned to India from South Africa in 1915.
4) The First Movement in which Gandhiji got involved was at Champaran in Bihar in 1916.
5) In 1918, Gandhi Ji led the workers of textile mills in Ahmedabad against the mill owners. Gandhiji also involved himself with the peasants of Kaira (Kheda).
6) By 1919, Gandhi became the popular leader in India.
7) Movements in the early 1920s :
(i) Peaceful Demonstration.
(ii) Boycott of courts.
(iii) Peaceful defiance of Law.
(iv) Non- Payment of Taxes.
(v) Picketing of Shop selling Foreign goods.
8) After the First World War, The Government of India Act of 1919 was passed.
Rowlatt Act and Jallianwala Bagh Massacre:
1) In March 1919, the government passed the Rowlatt Act. Under Rowlatt Act, British officials could arrest anyone without a trial.
2) A countryside protest was coordinated on 6 April 1919.
3) On 10 April 1919, two National Leaders – Dr. Saffuddin Kitchlew and Dr. Satya Pal were arrested in Punjab.
4) On 13 April 1919, Jallianwala Bagh Massacre takes place.
5) Rabindranath Tagore renounced his Knighthood after Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
Khilafat Movement and Non-cooperation Movement:
1) Khilafat Movement was introduced by Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali in 1920.
2) Non – Cooperation Movement was introduced by Gandhiji in 1920.
3) Gandhi Ji gave the title “Kaiser-i-Hind” during Non-Cooperation Movement.
4) Constructive Programmes along with Non-Cooperation Movement:
(i) Popularization of Charkha and Khardi.
(ii) Promotion of Hindu Muslim Unity.
(iii) Abolition of Untouchability.
(iv) Spread of education.
5) Finally, the Congress session of Nagpur in 1920 adopted the Non-Cooperation program.
6) On 6 February 1922, the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement takes place.
7) Pro-changers wanted to end the boycott of legislature Councils.
8) In 1923, the Pro-changers formed the Swaraj Party.
9) During Withdraw of Non-Cooperation Movement, Gandhi Ji went to jail. Gandhi was released in February 1924 from Jail.
10) After releasing from Jail, Gandhi began to start Constructive Programmes:
(i ) Removal of Untouchability.
(ii) Promotion of Hindu Muslim unity.
(iii) Spread of Khadi.
11) In 1928, Vallabhbhai Patel organized the Bardoli Satyagraha.
Revolutionary Leaders And Movement’s:
1) In 1924, the revolutionary leaders formed the Hindustan Republican Association ( HRA).
2) In 1925, A group of revolutionaries stopped a train at Kakori in Uttar Pradesh and took away the money.
3) Hindustan Republican Association(HRA) changed into the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association in 1928.
4) Bhagat Singh was arrested in the Legislative Assembly on 8 April 1929.
5) In 1930, Three young revolutionaries killed the Inspector General of Prisons.
6) Surya Sen organized the Indian Republican Army.
7) Revolutionaries occupied the police Armoury at Chittagong.
8) Pritilata Waddedar became the Martyr in the struggle to free the country.
9) Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, and Sukhdev were held tight (or Hanged) on 23 March 1931.
10) Chander Shekhar Azad died at Allahabad in February 1927.
1) In November 1927, the Government appointed the Commission popularly known as Simon Commission.
2) Sir John Simon was chairman of the Simon Commission. Simon Commission arrived in India on 5 February 1928.
3) In 1928, the Congress session demanded the Dominion Status.
4) In 1928, Bhagat Singh and other revolutionaries killed the police officer Saunders.
5) In December 1929, Congress held a session at Lahore. Jawaharlal Nehru was president of Congress at that time. Congress declared “Purna Swaraj”.
Civil Disobedience Movement:
1) Under the Leadership of Gandhiji, Civil Disobedience Movement was launched.
2) On 12 March 1930, Gandhi Ji started his famous Dandi March.
3) In Tamil Nadu, C.Rajagopalachari led a similar March from Trichinopoly to Vedaranyam.
4) In Gujarat, Sarojini Naidu protested in Salt Depots.
5) No changers Group: Vallabhbhai Patel, C.Rajagopalachari, and Rajendra Prasad.
6) First Round Table Conference in November 1930 takes place.
7) Gandhi Irwin Pact of 193: It was decided to release Political Prisoners.
8) In September 1931, Second Round Table Conference was conducted and Congress participated.
9) In May 1934, Congress withdraw the Civil Disobedience Movement.
10) In August 1935, Government announced the Government of India Act 1935.
11) Congress decided to contest the elections to be held in 1937.
Quit India Movement:
1) The Second World War emerged in 1939.
2) In March 1942, Sir Stafford Cripps came to India with some Proposals. Gandhi depicted the Cripps Proposals as “Post -Dated Cheque on a crashing Bank.”
3) In August 1942, Gandhi launched the Quit India Movement. A resolution was moved on 8 August 1942 in Bombay by the All India Congress Committee. During Quit India Movement, Gandhi gave the slogan of “Do or Die”(Karo ya Maro).
4) By December 1942, Over 60,000 People were arrested due to Quit India Movement.
5) During the Terrible Famine in Bengal in 1943, 30 Lakhs people died.
Indian National Army:
1) Formation of the Indian National Army was taken by the Indian Independence League. General Mohan Singh was its Leader.
2) In 1943, the Leadership of Azad Hind Fauj came into the hands of Subhash Chandra Bose popularly known as Netaji.
3) On 21 October 1943, Netaji declared the Provincial Government in Singapore.
4) Subhash Chandra Bose went to Andaman
and hoisted the Flag of Tiranga on 30 December 1943.
5) In 1944, Azad Hind Fauj attempted to enter India through North-Eastern Route.
Netaji took the help of Japan to organize the Anti-British Revolt.
6) The Separate women regiment was Rani Jhansi Regiment was formed. It was led by Captain Lakhsmi Swaminathan.
However, Netaji died in Plane Crash.
1) In February 1946, the Cabinet Mission arrived in India.
2) Cabinet Mission proposed Interim Government.
3) Interim government was supervised by Jawaharlal Nehru.
4) In December 1946, the Constituent Assembly started framing Constitution for India.
5) Lord Mountbatten came to India in March 1947 as New Viceroy. Lord Mountbatten presented the plan of division between India and Pakistan.
6) Pakistan consists of West Punjab, Northeast Frontier, and East Bengal
(Currently known as Bangladesh).
Independence of India:
1) However, Mahatma Gandhi died on 30 January 1930 soon after independence.
2) On 26 January 1950, India became the Republic Nation.
1) Name any one famous slogan of Subash Chandra Bose?
Answer: “Delhi Chhalo”.
2) Which department presented the Independence Plan Of India?
Answer: Cabinet Mission.
3) Who formed the Indian Independence League?
Answer: Rash Bihari Bose.
4) Which party of India did not participate in the First Round Table conference?
Answer: Indian National Congress.
5) Which Communities of India participate in the First Round Table conference?
Answer: Muslim league and Representatives of Hindu Mahasabha.
6) When was the Salt law Broken?
Answer: On 6 April 1930.
7) What does the “Dominion Status” word mean?
Answer: Government by Indians.
8) Why was Police Armoury at Chittagong Occupied by Revolutionaries?
Answer: To get Arms for fighting with British rule.
9) Name anyone famous Revolutionary from Bengal?
Answer: Surya Sen.
10) Name the Revolutionary who killed Inspector general of Prisons?
Answer: Benoy Bose and Dinesh Gupta.
11) Why did Bhagat Singh thew a bomb in Central Legislative Assembly on 8 April 1929?
Answer: To protest against the Public Safety Bill and arrest of 31 laborers.
12) Who were Pro – changers?
Answer: C.R Das , Vithalbhai Patel and Motilal Nehru.
13) Who was British Officer in Amritsar during Jallianwala Bagh Massacre?
Answer: General Dyer.
14) When was National Humiliation Day observed?
Answer: On 6 April 1919.
15) When were Montego Chelmsford Reforms passed?
16) Which thing symbolized the “self reliance” during Non-Cooperation Movement?
17) In which State, Martial law was imposed during the 1920s?
18) Why was Bardoli Satyagraha organized?
Answer: To protest against Peasantry Taxes.
19) Name Two Revolutionaries who threw the bomb in the Legislative Assembly?
Answer: Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt.
20) Which conference was organized to discuss the reforms proposed by Simon Commission?
Answer: First Round Table conference in November 1930.
The Making of National Movement Class 8 History Chapter 9 Notes covers the entire explanation of the Chapter. Hope so, the Notes of this Chapter will help you in preparing for Class 8 Exams.
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